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Submission Preparation ChecklistAs part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
- The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
- The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, RTF, or WordPerfect document file format.
- Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
- The text is 1,5-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
- The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.
- If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.
Instructions to Authors: Africanus
(last modified 02/09/2019)
Please adhere strictly to these instructions to facilitate the publication process of articles.
Register on the Africanus website
If you are not already registered please register on the Africanus website: http://upjournals.co.za/index.php/Africanus/user/register
Please see the User Guide for further information:
If you are already registered as a Reviewer or in another role you can edit your profile when logged in to also register as an Author. Please see the Users’ Guide:
Submitting an article online
Please refer to the Users’ Guide for further details:
Requirements specific to this journal
Please read these requirements in conjunction with the comprehensive style guide that follows them.
Articles should not exceed 6000 words from the first word in the title to the last word in the list of references.
Present an abstract of not more than 250 words. Abstracts should not contain any footnotes or citations. Do not type the abstract in italics.
Below the abstract, please provide 4–6 keywords for indexing (only proper nouns should be capitalised). Separate keywords/phrases with a comma, e.g. semantics, codeswitching, discourse, southern regions of Africa, indexicality
General Style Guidelines (Chicago Manual of Style: Author-Date, 17th ed.)
1. Guidelines for Technical Preparation of Manuscript
Submit manuscripts electronically as Microsoft Word files.
All graphic material has to be positioned at the correct place in the text and should be of a good quality. Do not add supplementary files with graphic content.
Manuscripts must be presented as: A4 pages; normal margins; 12pt Times Roman; 1.5 line spacing.
Proofing language must be set as UK English (e.g. colour—not color; travelled—not traveled; organise; organisation; organising—not -ize).
Do not type double spaces anywhere; not between words, at the end of sentences or after colons.
Type hard spaces (shift + control + space bar) when phrases are preferred to be presented as a unit, e.g.10_000; Vol. 1 (2):_22–21.
Authors should include their affiliation or ORCID below their name, after the title of the article.
Do not use the ampersand (&) anywhere in the text or citations; use “and” instead.
In text, emphasise words by using italics only sparingly. Italicisation should otherwise be reserved for titles and words from a language other than that of the text.
Italicised words/phrases in another language are glossed by an equivalent word/phrase in the language of the text placed in parentheses, e.g. indoda (a man). Words well known in South African English are set as roman, for example, “lobola,” “ubuntu,” “indaba.”
Words/terms that need to be singled out as being “borrowed” from another author/source may be placed in double inverted commas.
Titles of standalone publications must be in headline style (significant words are capitalised) and in italics when typed in the text. Titles of articles are placed between “double inverted commas.” Also see citation guidelines for examples.
Acknowledgements appear at the end of the article, should be brief, and recognise sources of financial and logistical support and permission to reproduce materials from other sources. Save a copy of documentation granting such permission. Adherence to copyright rules remains each author’s sole responsibility.
Please note the format and order of information required in metadata for book reviews:
Reviewed Book, <Book title in italics> by Andy Author <Book author name(s) and surname in roman>
Unnamed University Press. 2014. Our Book Series. xiv + pp. 368. <Publisher, date of publication, series, and number of pages>
ISBN: 978-0-0000000-0 <ISBN>, https://doi.org/00.000/00000000.000.0000 <DOI>
Reviewed by Randy Reviewer <Reviewer details>
Unnamed University, Country <Affiliation: Institution, Country>
firstname.lastname@example.org <email address>
Please do not place any footnote markers before the beginning of the article’s main text. I.e., no footnotes may follow the article’s title or the author’s details (with the exception of the dagger (†) to indicate that an author is deceased).
Footnotes with references in Arabic numbers (1, 2, 3—do not use i, ii, iii) are allowed on condition that these are limited to essential notes that enhance the content without impeding the fluent reading of the article.
Footnotes are typed in 10pt. font and single spacing; hanging indent.
A note number should generally be placed at the end of a sentence or at the end of a clause. The number normally follows a quotation. Relative to other punctuation, the number follows any punctuation mark except for the dash, which it precedes.
“This,” wrote George Templeton Strong, “is what our tailors can do.”1
The bias was apparent in the Shotwell series2—and it must be remembered that Shotwell was a student of Robinson’s.
Though a note number normally follows a closing parenthesis, it may on rare occasion be more appropriate to place the number inside the closing parenthesis—if, for example, the note applies to a specific term within the parenthesis:
(In an earlier book he had said quite the opposite.)3
Men and their unions, as they entered industrial work, negotiated two things: young women would be laid off once they married (the commonly acknowledged “marriage bar”4 ), and men would be paid a “family wage.”
Endnotes are not allowed.
Footnotes do not replace the alphabetical list of references at the end of the text. References in notes are regarded as text references and not bibliographic information.
When quoting from a source, use “double inverted commas.”
To quote within a quote, use ‘single inverted commas’.
When quoting more than five lines, indent. Do not print indented text in italics and do not use quotation marks. A citation after the indented quote follows after a full stop, e.g. According to the report the council will discuss the matter at the next council meeting to be held on 5 January 2017. (Smit 2002, 1)
When quoting within an indented quotation, use double inverted commas.
Final full stops and commas are placed inside the quotation mark.
Colons and semicolons are placed outside of quotation marks.
Question and exclamation marks are only placed inside quotation marks if they form part of the quoted material:
Do you know if she is “accredited”?
He asked: “Are you accredited?”
When adding notes to a quote or changing a quotation, use square brackets, e.g. [own translation/emphasis]/[t]oday.
In text, numbers one to nine are in words; numbers 10 and above are in digits.
At the start of a sentence all numbers are in words.
In parentheses, all numbers are in digits; as for numbers of tables, figures and chapters.
Percentages should be expressed in digits followed by the unspaced percentage sign (%) throughout the text.
Decimals—e.g. 7.5—are always in digits (also in text).
Chicago prefers 122nd and 123rd (with an n and an r) over 122d and 123d.
The letters in ordinal numbers should not appear as superscripts (e.g., 122nd and NOT 122nd).
Gwen stole second base in the top half of the first innings.
The restaurant on the 45th floor has a splendid view of the city.
She found herself in 125th position out of 360.
Use Mathtype for display and inline equations, but not for single variables. Single variables should be inserted into the text as Unicode characters.
Abbreviations that begin and end on the same letter as the word, do not get a full stop (Mr/Dr/Eds), but note Ed./Rev.
Degrees: (Preferably without any punctuation)
BA; DPhil; MSc
Use the ellipsis when indicating that text has been left out in the middle of a quoted sentence—preferably not at the start or end of the sentence. It is a given that text has been left out preceding and following your quote.
Insert spaces before and after the ellipsis.
Use only three full stops for an ellipsis (A full stop is added before an ellipsis to indicate the omission of the end of a sentence, unless the sentence is deliberately incomplete. Similarly, a full stop at the end of a sentence in the original is retained before an ellipsis indicating the omission of material immediately following the full stop.)
In May 1862, two new missionaries, Endeman and Albert Nachtigal, joined Grützner and Merensky. … It was decided that Endeman and Grützner continue working. … The latter two eventually established the mission station Botshabelo … which later would play an important role in the Ba-Kopa history.
The unspaced em-dash (—) is used (Alt 0151).
An unspaced en-dash (–) (Alt 0150), NOT A HYPHEN (-), is used to indicate ranges (e.g. of numbers or page numbers: 15–21).
One initial: Steyn, P. 2009.
Steyn, P. R. G. 2009. (spaces between initials)
Steyn, P. R. G., R. T. Robbins and W. R. N. Boshoff. 2011.
Capitalisation of personal names
Names and initials of persons, real or fictitious, are capitalised. The reference lists in some journals (especially in the natural sciences) always use initials instead of given names. A space should be used between any initials.
George, S. McGovern
- D. James
- F. K. Fisher
Capitalisation of (South African) surnames with prefixes
(South African) surnames with prefixes should be capitalised as follows when used in isolation from a given name (such as in citations and reference lists):
De Vos, Le Roux, Van der Walt
Give the full name when first mentioned (with acronym in parentheses), thereafter use the acronym uniformly and consistently:
Unisa; CSIR; HSRC; Sabinet/SABINET
et al. (not italics) Never use in the reference list.
When citing a text with four+ authors, use only the first author’s name followed by “et al.” in text, but list all authors in the reference list.
Tables and figures
Table headings appear above the tables and are numbered.
E.g. Table 1: Our Table
Figure captions appear below the figures and are numbered.
Captions of figures other than artworks should be short and descriptive.
Include authors cited in tables and figures in the reference list.
Supply the source below the table or figure, if material is copyrighted.
2. Citation Guidelines: Chicago Author-Date
Within the body of your text, citations are indicated in parentheses with the author's surname, publication date, and page number (if needed, as when quoting direct words), e.g. (Smith 2012, 45).
Citations are placed within the text where they offer the least resistance to the flow of thought, frequently just before a mark of punctuation.
Single-author citations: If the author’s name appears in the text it is not necessary to repeat it, but the date should follow immediately:
Malan (2014, 4) refers to this …
Single author with two or more works in the same year:
(Gray 2009a; 2009b)
One publication with two or three authors:
… contested by Smith and Jones (2013, 16). Also (Smith and Jones 2013, 16)
… venture failed (Bergin 2009; Chance 2008, 14–17).
When citing multiple publications/authors do so alphabetically (Louw 2010a, 3; Ncube 2008, 77; Zeiss 1993, 4).
Multiple-author (three+ authors) publications with the same initial surname and same year of publication—shorten titles:
(Coe et al., “Media diversity,” 2001) and (Coe et al., “Social media,” 2001)
No page numbers are needed if citing a text on the Internet, e.g. academic freedom (Smith 2014), unless page numbers are available:
When citing a secondary source:
… greater good (Mullins as quoted in Khan 2014, 6).
Mullins (as quoted in Khan 2014, 6) argues …
Blogs are only referenced in-text.
References: (See examples below)
Use the heading: References.
Only list sources actually referred to in the text.
List authors alphabetically. Use surnames, first names (if known) and initials.
NB: Although full first names are used in the examples in this document, it is also acceptable to use authors’ initials only, as long as one system is used consistently in a given article.
The entries are additionally sorted by the work’s date of publication (oldest to newest).
Do not use a dash to replace author names.
If no author or editor, order alphabetically by title (corresponding with text citation).
A single-author entry precedes a multi-author entry beginning with the same surname.
Successive entries by two+ authors, where the first author is the same, are alphabetised by co-authors’ surnames.
Use headline-style capitalisation in titles and subtitles of works and parts of works such as articles or chapters (i.e., Biology in the Modern World: Science for Life in South Africa). Capitalise significant words and proper nouns.
Use headline-style capitalisation for titles of journals and periodicals (i.e., Journal of Social Activism).
Titles of stand-alone publications are typed in italics when used in text: Evangelism and the Growth of Pentecostalism in Africa.
Source within another source: Smit, R. 2012. “Where to Now?” In Climate Change in the Next Decade, edited by S. Y. Tovey and T. Rosti, 200–234. Pretoria: Van Schaik.
Treat pamphlets, reports, brochures and freestanding publications (such as exhibition catalogues) as books. Give sufficient information to identify the document.
Electronic references (NB: The text reference must correspond with the alphabetical reference list)
Author’s surname, name and initials (if available); title of article/publication. website address (URL):
Macdonald, Fiona. 2017. “The Extraordinary Life of the 1920s Lady Gaga.” BBC Culture, September 20. Accessed October 6, 2017. http://www.bbc.com/culture/story/20170920-the-extraordinary-life-of-the-19th-century-lady-gaga.
Personal communications, letters, conversations, emails, interviews, recordings may be listed separately in the reference list.
Omit: Inc., Co. Publishing Co. etc. from the name of the publisher.
Parentheses with issue number: When volume and issue number are used, the issue number is placed in parentheses.
Example: Morasse, Sébastien, Helga Guderley, and Julian J. Dodson. 2008.“Paternal Reproductive Strategy Influences Metabolic Capacities and Muscle Development of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) Embryos.” Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 81 (4): 402–13.
When only an issue number is used, it is not enclosed in parentheses.
Example: Meyerovitch, Eva. 1959. “The Gnostic Manuscripts of Upper Egypt.” Diogenes, no. 25, 84–117.
Archival material/manuscript collections
When citing archival material in the author-date style, it is unnecessary to use n.d. (no date) in place of the date. Dates of individual items should be mentioned in the text, when applicable:
(in the reference list) Egmont Manuscripts. Phillipps Collection. University of Georgia Library.
Kallen, Horace. Papers. YIVO Institute for Jewish Research, New York.
(in text) Oglethorpe wrote to the trustees on January 13, 1733 (Egmont Manuscripts), to say ...
Alvin Johnson, in a memorandum prepared sometime in 1937 (Kallen Papers, file 36), observed that ...
If only one item from a collection has been mentioned in the text, however, the entry may begin with the writer’s name (if known). In such a case, the use of n.d. may become appropriate:
Dinkel, Joseph. n.d. Description of Louis Agassiz written at the request of Elizabeth Cary Agassiz. Agassiz Papers. Houghton Library, Harvard University.
Examples (For full list of examples see http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide/citation-guide-2.html)
R: Reference list
T: Text citation
R: Pollan, Michael. 2006. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin.
T: (Pollan 2006, 99–100).
Two or three authors
R: Ward, Geoffrey C., and Ken Burns. 2007. The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945. New York: Knopf.
T: (Ward and Burns 2007, 52).
Four or more authors, list all of the authors in the reference list; in the text, list only the first author, followed by et al. (“and others”):
R: Akmajian, Adrian, Richard A. Demers, Ann K. Farmer, and Robert M. Harnish. 2001. Linguistics: An Introduction to Language and Communication. 5th ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
T: (Akmajian et al. 2001).
Editor, translator, or compiler instead of author
R: Lattimore, Richmond, trans. 1951. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
T: (Lattimore 1951, 91–92).
Editor, translator, or compiler in addition to author
R: García Márquez, Gabriel. 1988. Love in the Time of Cholera. Translated by Edith Grossman. London: Cape.
T: (García Márquez 1988, 242–55).
Chapter or other part of a book
R: Kelly, John D. 2010. “Seeing Red: Mao Fetishism, Pax Americana, and the Moral Economy of War.” In Anthropology and Global Counterinsurgency, edited by John D. Kelly, Beatrice Jauregui, Sean T. Mitchell, and Jeremy Walton, 67–83. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
T: (Kelly 2010, 77).
Chapter of an edited volume originally published elsewhere (as in primary sources)
R: Cicero, Quintus Tullius. 1986. “Handbook on Canvassing for the Consulship.” In Rome: Late Republic and Principate, edited by Walter Emil Kaegi Jr. and Peter White. Vol. 2 of University of Chicago Readings in Western Civilization, edited by John Boyer and Julius Kirshner, 33–46. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Originally published in Evelyn S. Shuckburgh, trans. 1908. The Letters of Cicero, vol. 1. London: George Bell & Sons.
T: (Cicero 1986, 35)
Preface, foreword, introduction, or similar part of a book
R: Rieger, James. 1982. Introduction to Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, xi–xxxvii. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
T: (Rieger 1982, xx–xxi)
Book published electronically
If a book is available in more than one format, cite the version you consulted. For books consulted online, list a URL and include an access date. If no fixed page numbers are available, you can include a section title or a chapter or other number.
R: Austen, Jane. 2007. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics. Kindle edition.
T: (Austen 2007)
R: Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. 1987. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/ (accessed January 1, 2012).
T: (Kurland and Lerner, chap. 10, doc. 19)
Article in a print journal
In the text, list the specific page numbers consulted, if any. In the reference list entry, list the page range for the whole article.
R: Weinstein, Joshua I. 2009. “The Market in Plato’s Republic.” Classical Philology 104 (4): 439–58. https://doi.org/10.1086/650979.
T: (Weinstein 2009, 440)
Article in an online journal
Include a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) if the journal lists one. Do not put a full stop after the DOI—A DOI is a permanent ID that, when appended to https://doi.org/ in the address bar of an Internet browser, will lead to the source. If no DOI is available, list a URL and provide an access date.
R: Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. 2009. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network.” American Journal of Sociology 115: 405–50. https://doi.org/10.1086/599247.
T: (Kossinets and Watts 2009, 411)
R: Kamp, David. 2006. “Deconstructing Dinner.” Review of The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals, by Michael Pollan. New York Times, April 23, Sunday Book Review. Accessed January 1, 2012. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/04/23/books/review/23kamp.html
T: (Kamp 2006)
Thesis or dissertation
R: Choi, Mihwa. 2008. “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty.” PhD diss., University of Chicago.
T: (Choi 2008)
Paper presented at a meeting or conference
R: Adelman, Rachel. 2009. “‘Such Stuff as Dreams are Made On’: God’s Footstool in the Aramaic Targumim and Midrashic Tradition.” Paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 21–24.
T: (Adelman 2009)
R: South Africa. 1978. Nursing Act 50 of 1978. Pretoria: Government Printer.
T: (South Africa 1978)
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