THE CHILD SUPPORT GRANT AND YOUNG MOTHERHOOD: EXPLORING CORRELATES OF DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMOLOGY
Keywords:depressive symptomology, child support grant, young motherhood, South Africa
Young motherhood is acknowledged as a challenge in South Africa, as it is characterised by competing responsibilities in relation to care for children, and the desire to advance into employment and education (Graham, 2012). These competing aspects could place young mothers at a high risk of experiencing depressive symptoms. Young mothers are fortunate that they can access the Child Support Grant (CSG) as a source of financial support for children living in poverty in South Africa. But what other factors play a role in young mothersâ€™ mental well-being? In this article, a secondary analysis of the National Income Dynamics Study (South African Labour and Development Research Unit (SALDRU), 2008) is conducted, with the aim to investigate the associations between individual factors, household factors and depressive symptomology in young mothers aged 18-24 years. The findings revealed that there is a distal relationship between the CSG and depressive symptomology in young mothers. This means that while the CSG is a source of support and young mothers retain the CSG when they move away from home, the grant without family support is inadequate in protecting young mothers against depressive symptoms. Interventions that are aimed at building parenting and financial abilities are, therefore, crucial in protecting young mothers against depressive symptoms as they age.
Abela, A. and Walker, J. (2014). Contemporary Issues in Family Studies: Global Perspectives on Partnerships, Parenting and Support in a Changing World West Sussex: John Wiley and Sons.
Ardington, C. and Case, A. (2010). â€œInteractions between Mental Health and Socioeconomic Status in the South African National Income Dynamics Studyâ€ Journal of Studies in Economics and Econometrics 34(3):69-84.
Budlender, D. and Lund, F. (2011). â€œSouth Africa: A Legacy of Family Disruptionâ€ Development and Change 42(4):925-946.
Delany, A., Ismail, Z., Graham, L. and Ramkisson, Y. (2008). Review of the Child Support Grant: Uses, Implementation and Obstacles Johannesburg: Department of Social Develop-ment, CASE, SASSA and UNICEF.
Denis, P. and Ntsimane, R. (2006). â€œAbsent Fathers: Why Do Men Not Feature in Stories of Families Affected by HIV/AIDS in KwaZulu-Natal?â€ in Richter, L. and Morrell, R. (Eds.). Baba: Men and Fatherhood in South Africa Cape Town: South Africa: HSRC Press, 237-249.
Dinkelman, T. (2004). â€œHow Household Context Affects Search Outcomes of the Unemployed in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africaâ€ South African Journal of Economics 72(3):484-521.
Field, A. (2005). Discovering Statistics Using SPSS London: Sage.
Foster, J., Greer, J. and Thorbecke, E. (2010). â€œThe Fosterâ€“Greerâ€“Thorbecke (FGT) Poverty Measures: 25 Years Laterâ€ The Journal of Economic Inequality 8(4):491-524.
Graham, L. (2012). Understanding Risk in the Everyday Identity-work of Young People on the East Rand (Unpublished Doctoral Thesis) Johannesburg: University of Johannesburg, Centre for Social Development in Africa.
Holborn, L. and Eddy, G. (2011). First Steps into Healing the South African Family Johannesburg: South African Institute of Race Relations.
Jordan, N., Patel, L. and Hochfeld, T. (2014). â€œEarly Motherhood in Soweto: The Nexus between the Child Support Grant and Developmental Social Work Servicesâ€ Social Work: A Professional Journal for the Social Worker 50(3):392-409.
Knitzer, J. and Johnson, K. (2010). â€œReducing Maternal Depression and its Impact on Young Children: Toward a Responsive Early Childhood Policy Frameworkâ€ (Project THRIVE Issue Brief 2), http://www.modernmedicine.com/modernmedicine/news/modern medicine/modern-medicine-feature-articles/reducing-maternal-depression-an?page=full (Accessed on 01/05/2014).
Leibbrandt, M., Woolard, I. and De Villiers, L. (2009). â€œMethodology: Report on NIDS Wave 1â€ National Income Dynamics Study. Cape Town, South Africa: Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit, University of Cape Town.
Lund, C. (2012). â€œPoverty and Mental Health: A Review of Practice and Policiesâ€ Neuropsychiatry 2(3):213-219.
Mavungu, M.E., Thomson-de Boor, H. and Mphaka, K. (2013). â€œSo We Are ATM Fathersâ€: A Study of Absent Fathers in Johannesburg, South Africa Centre for Social Development in Africa, University of Johannesburg.
Moodley, J. (2014). â€œWomenâ€™s Mental Health: Coping Mechanisms in the Context of Povertyâ€ Journal of Psychology in Africa 24(3):264-271.
National Association of Child and Youth Care Workers (NACCW). (2014). â€œIsibindi: Creating Circles of Careâ€, http://www.naccw.org.za/isibindi (Accessed on 30/03/2016).
Nduna, M., Jewkes, R.K., Dunkle, K.L., Shai, N.P.J. and Colman, I. (2013). â€œPrevalence and Factors Associated with Depressive Symptoms among Young Women and Men in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africaâ€ Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health 25(1):43-54.
Patel, L., Hochfeld, T., Moodley, J. and Mutwali, R. (2012). The Gender Dynamics and Impact of the Child Support Grant in Doornkop, Soweto Centre for Social Development in Africa, University of Johannesburg.
Plagerson, S., Patel, V., Harpham, T., Kielmann, K. and Mathee, A. (2011). â€œDoes Money Matter for Mental Health? Evidence from the Child Support Grants in Johannesburg, South Africaâ€ Global Public Health 6(7):760-76.
Putnam, F.W. (2006). â€œThe Impact of Trauma on Child Development: Juvenile and Family Court Journalâ€, http://www.psychceu.com/nctsn/Putnam.impact.pdf (Accessed on 30/03/2016).
Richter, L. and Morrell, R. (2006). Baba: Men and Fatherhood in South Africa Cape Town: HSRC Press.
South African Labour and Development Research Unit (SALDRU). (2008). National Income Dynamics Study Wave 1 Cape Town: Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit, University of Cape Town.
South African Social Security Agency (SASSA). (2014). Fact Sheet 8 of 2014 Pretoria: Statistics South Africa.
Statistics South Africa (StatsSA). (2014). Quarterly Labour Force Survey Pretoria: Statistics South Africa.
Stoppard, J.M. (2000). Understanding Depression: Feminist Social Constructionist Approaches London: Routledge.
Thompson, R. (1995). Preventing Child Maltreatment Through Social Support: A Critical Analysis Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Tomita, A. and Burns, J.K. (2012). â€œA Multilevel Analysis of Association between Neighbourhood Social Capital and Depression: Evidence from the First South African National Income Dynamics Studyâ€ Journal of Affective Disorders 144:101-105.
United Nations International Childrenâ€™s Emergency Fund (UNICEF). (2006). â€œGirls Education Movement: South Africaâ€, http://www.unicef.org/southafrica/resources_ 8145.html (Accessed on 15/04/2015).
Van Donk, M. (2004). â€œWomen in the City of Johannesburgâ€ A Study Commissioned by the Office of the City Manager, City of Johannesburg.
World Health Organization (WHO). (2011). World Report on Disability Geneva: WHO Press.
Wright, G., Noble, M., Ntshongwana, P., Neves, D. and Barnes, H. (2014). â€œSouth Africaâ€™s Child Support Grant and the Dignity of Female Caregiversâ€, http://www.casasp.ox. ac.uk/docs/Dignity_final_report_120714.pdf (Accessed on 15/04/2015).
How to Cite