• Harrite Ekole-Chabanga University of the Western Cape
  • Karien Jooste University of the Western Cape



emotional response, coping mechanisms, youth, victims, nurse leaders, community health centres


Violence continues to take its toll on post-apartheid South Africa and the youth remain the most affected group of many communities. Youth, more and more, visit community health centres to seek health care with a subsequent increase in workload for nurse leaders at these facilities. It was unclear how nurse leaders experience caring for youth victims of violence at a community health centre. A qualitative, descriptive and contextual design was used. A purposive and snowball sampling led to nine nurse leaders, working at a community health centre, being interviewed. Teschs' descriptive method of open coding was used for data analysis. The findings revealed challenges faced by the youths, however, also rewarding experiences. Nurses revealed some emotive responses and different coping mechanisms to deal with these emotions. Understanding these emotive responses and coping mechanisms used will help develop guidelines to support nurse leaders in community settings.


Metrics Loading ...


Adriaenssens, J., De Gucht, V. and Maes, S. (2012). “The Impact of Traumatic Events on Emergency Room Nurses: Findings from a Questionnaire Survey†International Journal of Nursing Studies 49:1411-1422.

Amstadter, A.B. and Vernon, L.L. (2006). “Suppression of Neutral and Trauma Targets: Implications for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder†Journal of Traumatic Stress 19(4): 517-526.

Bonnano, G.A. (2010). The Other Side of Sadness: What the New Science of Bereavement tells us about Life after Loss New York: Basic Books.

Bride, B.E. (2007). “Prevalence of Secondary Traumatic Stress among Social Workers†Social Work/Maatskaplike Werk 52(1):63-70.

Bride, B.E., Jones, J.L. and MacMaster, S. (2007). “Correlates of Secondary Traumatic Stress in Child WelfareWorkers†Journal of Evidence-Based Social Work 4(3/4):69-80.

Bryman, A. (2012). Social Research Methods London: Oxford University Press, Fourth Edition.

Burns, N. and Grove, S.K. (2005). The Practice of Nursing Research: Conduct, Critique and Utilization St Louis: Elsevier, Fifth Edition.

Carter, N., Martin-Misener, R., Kilpatrick, K., Kaasalainen, S., Donald, F., Bryant-Lukosius, D., Harbman, P., Bourgeault, I. and DiCenso, A. (2010). “The Role of Nursing

Leadership in Integrating Clinical Nurse Specialists and Nurse Practitioners in Healthcare Delivery in Canada†Nursing Leadership 2010:167-185.

Chambers, M., Ryan, A.A. and Connor, S.L. (2001). “Exploring the Emotional Support Needs and Coping Strategies of Family Careers†Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 8(2):99-106.

Collins English Dictionary Complete and Unabridged. (2009). New York: Harper Collins Publishers, Tenth Edition.

Compas, B.E., Connor-Smith, J.K., Saltzman, H., Thomsen, A.H. and Wadsworth, M.E. (2001). “Coping With Stress during Childhood and Adolescence: Problems, Progress, and Potential in Theory and Research†American Psychological Association 127(1):87-127.

Cullinan, K. (2006). Health Services in South Africa: A Basic Introductory Johannesburg: Health e-News Service.

Deci, E.L. and Ryan, R.M. (2008). “Self-Determination Theory: A Macro Theory of Human Motivation, Development, and Health†Canadian Psychology 49(3):182-185.

Dombeck, M. and Wells-Moran, J. (2006). “Coping Strategies and Defense Mechanisms: Basic and Intermediate Defensesâ€, (Accessed on 09/09.2015).

Dörnyei, Z. and Ushioda, E. (2011). Teaching and Researching Motivation Harlow: Pearson Education Limited, Second Edition.

Dyess, S. M. (2011). “Faith: A Concept Analysis†Journal of Advanced Nursing 67(12):


Ekman, P. and Friesen, W. (1976). Pictures of Facial Affect Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press.

Elliot, A.J. and Covington, M. (2001). “Approach and Avoidance Motivation†Educational Psychology Review 13(2):73-92.

Flick, U. (2014). An Introduction to Qualitative Research London: Sage Publication, Fifth Edition.

French, H. Du Plessis, E. and Scrooby, E. (2011). “The Emotional Well-being of the Nurse Within the Multi-Skill Setting†Health SA Gesondheid 16(1):1-9. doi:10.4102/hsag.16i1.553.

Guion, L.A., Diehl, D.C. and MacDonald, D. (2011). Triangulation: Establishing the Validity of Qualitative Studies Gainesville, Florida: Cooperative Extension Service.

Garssen, B. (2007). “Repression: Finding Our Way in the Maze of Concepts†Journal of Behavioural Medicine 30:471-481.

Houser, J. (2011). Nursing Research: Reading, Using and Creating Evidence Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning, Second Edition.

Jegede, S. (2009). “African Ethics, Health Care Research and Community and Individual Participation†Journal of Asian and African Studies 44(2):239-253.

Jennings, M.N. (2008). “Work Stress and Burnout among Nurses. Role of the Work Environment and Working Conditions†in Hughes, R.G. (Ed.). Patient Safety and Quality: An Evidence based Handbook for Nurses Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Volume 1: Chapter 26, 671-692.

Keele R. (2011). Nursing Research and Evidence-based Nursing Montreal: Jones and Barlette Learning.

Krug, E.G., Mercy, J.A., Dahlberg. L.L, and Zwi, A.B. (2002). “The World Report on Violence and Health†Lancet 360(9339):1083-1088.

Lincoln, Y.S. and Guba, E.G. (1985). Naturalistic Inquiry Newbury Park: Sage.

Macnee, C.L. and McCabe, S. (2008). Understanding Nursing Research: Using Research in Evidence-based Practice London: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, Second Edition.

Magyar, J. and Theophilos, T. (2010). “Review Article: Debriefing Critical Incidents in the Emergency Department†Emergency Medicine Australas 22(6):499-506.

Margaria, T. (2010). Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods, Verification and Validation “4th International Symposium on Leveraging Applications, ISoLA 2010†Crete, Greece: Springer Publication.

Markus, H.R. and Kitayama, S. (1991). “Culture and the Self: Implications for Cognition, Emotion, and Motivation†Psychological Review 98(2):224-253.

Martin, B. and Hanington, B.M. (2012). Universal Methods of Design: 100 Ways to Research Complex Problems, Develop Innovative Idea and Design Effective Solutions Beverly MA: Rockport Publishers.

Mijakoski, D., Karadzinska-Bislimovska, J., Basarovska, V., Stoleski, S. and Minov, J. (2015). “Burnout and Work Demands Predict Reduced Job Satisfaction in Health Professionals Working in a Surgery Clinic†Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences 3(1):166-173.

Norman, R. Schneider, M., Bradshaw, D., Jewkes, R., Abrahams, N., Matzopoulos, R. and Vos, T. (2010). “Interpersonal Violence: An Important Risk Factor for Disease and Injury in South Africa†Population Health Metrics. doi:10.1186/1478-7954-8-32

Ntoumanis, N., Edmunds, J. and Duda, J. L. (2009). “Understanding the Coping Process from a Self-determination Theory†British Journal of Health Psychology 14:249-260.

Obiakor, F.P., Bakken, J.P. and Rotatori, A.F. (Eds) (2010). Current Issues and Trends in Special Education: Research Technology and Teacher Preparation Bingley, London: Emerald Group Publishing.

O’Mahony, D., Wright G., Yogeswaran, P. and Govere, F. (2014). “Knowledge and Attitudes of Nurses in Community Health Centres about Electronic Medical Records†Curationis 37(1):1-6.

Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. (2015). London: Oxford University Press, Nineth Edition.

Raphael, B., Meldrum, L. and McFalane, A.C. (1996). “Does Debriefing after Psychological Trauma Work? Time for Randomized Controlled Trials†British Medical Journal 310:1479-1480.

Rosmarin, D.H., Bigda-Peyton, J.S., Kertz, S.J., Smith, N., Rauch, S.L. and Bjorgvinsson, T. (2013). “A Test of Faith in God and Treatment: The Relationship of Belief in God to

Psychiatric Treatment Outcomes†Journal of Affective Disorders 146(3):146-446.

Rueden, K.T.V., Hinderer, K.A., McQuillan, K.A., Murray, M., Logan, T., Kranner, B. Gilmore, R. and Friedmann, E. (2010). “Secondary Traumatic Stress in Trauma Nurses: Prevalence and Exposure, Coping, and Personal/Environmental Characteristics†Journal of Trauma Nursing 17(4):191.

Saldana, J. (2013). The Coding Manual for Qualitative Researchers London: Sage Publication, Second Edition.

Schmalenberg, C. and Kramer, M. (2009). “Healthy Work Environments: Nurse Manager Support: How Do Staff Nurses Define It?†Critical Care Nurse 29(4):61-69.

Stangor, C. (2014). Research Methods for the Behavioral Sciences New York: Cencage Learning, Fifth Edition.

Seedat, M., Van Niekerk, A., Jewkes, R., Suffla, S. and Ratele, K. (2009). “Violence and Injuries in South Africa: Prioritising an Agenda for Prevention†The Lancet 374(9694):1011-1022.

Sundheim, D. (2015). “Debriefing: A Simple Tool to Help Your Team Tackle Tough Problems†Harvard Business Review, your-team-tackle-tough-problems (Accessed on 29/07/2016).

Swindal, J. (2008). “‘Faith and Reason’ in Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophyâ€, (Accessed on 07/08/2016).

Tesch, R. (1990). Qualitative Research: Analysis Types and Software Tools Bristol, PA: Falmer Press.

Thabane, L., Ma, J., Chu, R., Cheng, J., Ismaila, A., Rios, L.P., Robson, R., Thabane, M., Giangregorio, L. and Goldsmith, C.H. (2010). “A Tutorial on Pilot Studies: The What, Why and How Methodology†BMC Medical Research 10:1.

Ugur, K. L. (2012). “Violent Crime Prevention: Bridging the Divide between Practice and Policy towards a New Model for Planning Interventionâ€, (Accessed on 23/07/2016).

Van Wyk, B.E. and Pillay-Van Wyk, V. (2010). (Review). Preventive Staff-Support Interventions for Health Workers West Sussex: John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

Van Zyl, M. and Du Plessis, Y. (2012). “Exploring Coping Strategies of Business Leaders during an Economic Downturn†South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences (SAJEMS) 15(4):402-415.

Yildirim, D. (2009). “Bullying Among Nurses and Its Effects†International Nursing

Review 56:507-511.




How to Cite

Ekole-Chabanga, Harrite, and Karien Jooste. 2016. “NURSE LEADERS’ EMOTIONAL RESPONSE AND COPING MECHANISMS WHILE CARING FOR YOUTH VICTIMS OF VIOLENCE AT A COMMUNITY HEALTH CENTRE”. Southern African Journal of Social Work and Social Development 28 (3):236-50.